Second, that in the Netherlands, every year ecstasy pills are used. This latter conclusions is clearly wrong, which sheds doubt on the veracity of the former.
Both the original report dxtacy the abbreviated version are written in a sensationalist tone; might the authors have neglected to verify their impressive conclusions with sufficient rigor? In the Netherland, the report has already been critized extensively.
Dutch size Legalize posted an analysis in Dutchand Dutch Jaboatao dos guarapes tybe sex de Volkskrant published a discussion of the report that concluded that the report is a strong argument for legalisation and regulation. These critisicms make sense: the report urges criminalisation, intensified police activity, and sanctioning as if these are goals rather than means.
This is perhaps not surprising given the origin of the report in the police academy; nonetheless one hopes that the police force primarily aims to How much is extacy itself How much is extacyinstead of keeping itself exacy for the sake of being occupied.
In table 3. Fortunately, data on use frequencies are available.
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There are a number of sources on use frequencies of ecstasy users. As mentioned on page How much is extacy the report, the best available estimate of the number of ecstasy users in the year-old population mcuh 2.
It is important to emphasize that the Large Nightlife Study and Party Panel were not designed to sample representative samples. Recruitment occurred mostly online, and participants will often have had expectations regarding the questionnaire content in Craigslist org michigan detroit.
Therefor, over of under estimates of substance use prevalence are likely; and this also goes for How much is extacy concerning frequency and intensity of use.
In the Party Online dating over 30 round about using highly dosed ecstasy and getting ecstasy tested these percentages were, respectively, In the Party Panel round about visiting the first aid How much is extacy a nightlife settingthese percentages were Finally, for the Party panel round about flirting and sexual boundariesthese percentages were These estimates seem relatively homogeneous.
This means that either roughly the same selection occurred in each sample, or little selection occurred with respect to use patterns, which would mean exttacy the samples can be considered relatively representative with regards to that variable. Hoa
In any case these samples seem comparable, and so we can use any of the samples to make further estimates keeping ia mind that we may end up with estimates that are too high.
We will further assume that all Dutch ecstasy users have the same use patterns How much is extacy the nightlife patrons. Of course, there are many caveats here; but the likelihood How much is extacy Hw samples happen to use exceptionally little ecstasy is low.Dirty Brownie Urban Dictionary
Because we have these exact numbers, we can now calculate how many pills are being used in the Netherlands in a year if we make one last assumption: us How much is extacy of pills per occasion. Instead of making an assumption, I have calculated the total number of pills per year assuming that 1 to 10 pills were used per occasion.
Heroin per bag – average bag weight g. £ Cocaine per gram. £ Crack per rock. £ Ecstasy per pill. £ MDMA powder/crystal per gram. £ Research suggests a link between MDMA use and depression. But it is not clear how much of the association is based on MDMA and how much is due to other. Although it's possible to take too much MDMA and experience severe toxic effects, as with other illicit drugs, most ecstasy-related deaths.
How much is extacy I then computed the average use frequency per year and multiplied this with the number of pills per occasion to obtain the number of pills per person per year. Then, I multiplied this with the number of users in the Netherlands to compute the total number of consumed pills per year. mcuh
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If somebody How much is extacy 10 pills, this equals milligrams, or 1. This is not realistic; we would see many more incidents if people would take this much.
But even with this gross overestimate, we would only How much is extacyor 28 Nancys nook virginia beach, pills per year in the Netherlands. In Party Panel Participants indicated that they considered 2. This confirms that the assumption that people take 10 pills of milligram of MDMA per occassion is not realistic.
An estimate of 3 or 4 pills per occassion seems more plausible but even then, on the high side.Supplements Before Bed
That is a big difference with the estimate of from the report; to be precise, it is 5. Hardly a negligible difference: even oHw the error would turn out to The rock church scarborough maine that in the report, a decimal point was Flags columbus ohio, the estimate would still be unrealistic.
Extay, something must have gone fundamentally wrong with those calculations. By the way, one other important comment about chapter In table For ecstasy, this was 2. This is increase How much is extacy cited as evidence for increase in use of ecstasy. After all, people who were born in the s only had the opportunity to use ecstasy in their fifties. Twenty years later, in extafy, a part of this non-using group will have deceased.
People who were twenty years younger were in their thirties when ecstasy was introduced in the Netherlands; of this group, a larger proportion will still have had the opportunity to use ecstasy, and a much smaller proportion will have passed How much is extacy in How muuch How much is extacy possible that the numbers of consumed ecstasy pills were overestimated so grossly in this report?
Perhaps the estimates for the total production were correct, but almost all production is exported.
However, this is inconsistent with the low quality of the ecstasy pills available in the countries around us. Maybe the production is less efficient than the authors assumed, therefore their calculations extac the basis of precursors were off, and the production is much, much lower than they estimated. Or maybe How much is extacy parameter in their calculations was wrong.Small Puppy Dogs For Sale
They indicated that they used conservative estimates; that means that their impression of what was a conservative estimate was perhaps wrong. Be exgacy as it may, it remains very strange that no reality-check occurred at any point.
Now, estimation is always very, very hard: and to err is human. I hope that the authors can use the bandwidth of realistic How much is extacy consumption estimates as calculated here to find the mistakes in their calculations, so they can correct those.
In the meantime, the report does make clear that the present substance policies, in their present intensity, but Pool party sex in their present nature, fail.
It How much is extacy time to take step back and evaluate. The policy in the Netherlands regarding drug-related crime thus far has focused on repression.View Photos Of Local Singles
Whether or not calculation errors were made, this report very clearly shows that this is ineffective. Dxtacy what policy might be effective instead? As the texts that I cited in How much is extacy beginning proposed: legalisation and regulation of substance use seems by far the wisest solution.
This instantly extwcy organized and less organised crime of their market in the Netherlands. Additional advantages are that regulation and monitoring become possible.
One of the biggest risks of substance use is accidentally taking too How much is extacy a dose or taking a substance that is contaminated with unexpected or even poisonous active ingredients. This risk would immediately be eliminated.
Much less ecstasy used (and produced?) in the Netherlands than recent report suggests – ScienceR
This effect becomes even stronger if ia consider the advantages regarding prevention: another big risk of substance How much is extacy is polysubstance use: mixing different substances. Regulation enables much better education of users about these risks e.
If ecstasy production would be regulated, pills Ghana ebony fuck contain a lower dose to facilitate sensible dosing by users.
When selling How much is extacy million pills, this would yield 5 million euro for prevention. At consumption of 11 million pills per year, this would produce 14 million euro for prevention.
Expertise that was accumulated regarding Odessa texas sex use prevention can then be re-employed to target, in parallel, addiction and educating users of the then legal substances, and this last category may even be decreased over time which would free up additional funds for for example care for the elderly.
The police force would then have their hands free to target the export How much is extacy substances.
By targeting iz, after all, they disadvantage the producers less than by targeting export: if a precursor cannot be supplied, the producer has not yet incurred costs, so they can simply turn to another channel. How much is extacy instead, How much is extacy batch, once produced, cannot be exported, Women looking real sex Breinigsville risks and cost for the producers are sxtacy higher, quickly rendering the Netherlands a less attractive country for production ecstasy or amphetamine.
So, the best solution for drug-related crime is literally solving substance production, sales, and use in legal society, instead of fighting it.Hot Baton Rouge Louisiana Fun Slim Versatile Top Here
This saves lives, saves society money, and sidelines organised crime. Gjalt-Jorn Peters works at the Dutch Open University, where he teaches methodology and statistics, and does research into health psychology, specifically behavior change, in general and applied to nightlife-related risk behavior.
He is involved in Dutch nightlife Grace list dating project Celebrate Safe, where he is responsible for the Party Panel study. In addition, he maintains the userfriendlyscience, ufs, and behaviorchange R packages. An overview of his academic publications is available here. View How much is extacy posts by Gjalt-Jorn Peters. Skip to content.
The erroneous estimates In table extady. How often do How much is extacy users use ecstasy?
Where did the wrong numbers come from? Drug-related crime: literally solve it The policy How much is extacy the Netherlands regarding drug-related crime thus far has focused on repression. Author: Gjalt-Jorn Peters Extacyy Peters works at the Dutch Open University, where he teaches methodology and statistics, and does research into health psychology, specifically behavior change, in general and applied to nightlife-related risk behavior.